The hip joint is formed by the head of the femur, which connects to the acetabulum of the pelvic bone. It is a spherical joint with excellent mobility. By creating a joint capsule, the ligaments stabilise the femoral head in the joint. The gluteal muscles and the muscles acting on the hip joint stabilise the thigh. They take the load of the body weight and maintain balance while walking. They are innervated from the lumbar (Th12-L4) and sacral (L5-S4) plexuses.
Hip problems can be associated with spinal problems, pelvis, iliac artery constriction, or nerve irritation: sciatica, pear-shaped muscle syndrome, or intramuscular injections. Pains can radiate to the buttock, groin, thigh or knee.
Fractures of the femoral neck
Fractures of the femoral neck occur due to osteoporosis when falling on a straight leg or the greater trochanter. They can be treated with the help of magnetrons or lymphatic drainage.
Degenerative changes can radiate to the buttock, thigh or groin. They lead to the limitation of hip movements, pain at night and at rest, or limping. It is essential to relieving the affected joint by using a cane/crutches held in the opposite hand and exercising to strengthen the muscles. Sometimes degenerations require the joint to be replaced, e.g. an endoprosthesis. After a hip replacement procedure, the patient needs to remain careful, as, during the procedure, the ligaments of the joint become torn. Fascial relaxation, manual therapy methods, strengthening exercises are used.
Overloading – imbalances in the hip girdle muscle tension lead to injuries, posture defects, problems with walking, or movement limitations. When standing or lying on the painful side, significant discomfort is experienced. It is influenced by work in forced positions. Postural exercises, Kinesio-taping and ultrasounds are performed.
Joint dislocations are rare and most often happen due to a fall from a great height, a motorcycle crash or when the joint socket is not adequately developed. The aim of the rehabilitation is to restore neuromuscular balance and hip function.
To confirm the diagnosis, we rely on information from the history, pain location, range of motion in the joints, muscle strength and orthopaedic tests. Imaging tests (MRI, CT, Ultrasound, X-ray) are helpful in the diagnosis.
The femur is a part of two joints: hip and knee. The thigh muscles are divided into the front (tailor’s and quadriceps) and back (hamstring) muscles. The thigh muscles also work on two joints.
Femoral shaft fractures
Femoral shaft fractures – occurs as a result of an injury. Pain is experienced; bone dislocation and swelling. Most often, plaster dressing or an anastomosis with an intramedullary rod are used. Physiotherapy consists of preventing muscular atrophy and enhancing muscle function. Magnetrons accelerate the process of bone tissue healing. The joints closest to the fracture are rehabilitated so that no complications caused by the lack of proper activity are developed.
Muscle tears, contusions and strains
Muscle tears, contusions and strains occur as a result of physical activity or a fall. Oedema and hematomas are common symptoms. In such cases, lymphatic drainage, Bioptron lamp, ultrasounds, dry needling are of help.
Thigh disorders may be associated with other diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, varicose veins and diabetes. They cause skin changes and pain. They can lead to amputations at the thigh level. Rehabilitation consists of preparing the stump for prosthesis, learning balance and gait. Devising the right exercise program is essential.